Mette Marcussen, DDS, PhD of Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark discusses studies focused on identification of mucositis biomarkers. Biopsies from patients treated with melphalan, one of the most toxic chemotherapy drugs, were analyzed at three different time points: before, after, and during melphalan treatment. A gene expression analysis confirmed results from the animal studies, highlighting the role of immunoregulatory and DNA damage genes. Only two genes were differently expressed in patients with mild and severe mucositis. Interestingly, two variants of a gene expressed on the surface of dendritic cells in the mucosa showed different expression patterns, which could be a target for further studies. Recorded at the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) and International Society of Ocular Oncology (ISOO) 2016 Annual Meeting on Supportive Care in Cancer held in Adelaide, Australia.