The ProtecT trial (NCT02044172) was a study conducted between 1999 and 2009 that compared active monitoring, radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy for the management of clinically localized prostate cancer. Following the 10-year median follow-up, Freddie Hamdy, MBChB, LRCSPEd, LRCSEd, LRCPSGlasg, FRCSEd, MD, FRCSEd(Urol), FRCS, FMedSci, of the University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. discusses the questions that the team involved with the trial have tried to address. What were the characteristics of the patients who progressed during the trial and does low-risk disease require any treatment? This interview was recorded at the 2017 National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) Conference in Liverpool, UK.