Alliance A031201 -  A phase III trial of enzalutamide (ENZ) versus enzalutamide, abiraterone, and prednisone (ENZ/AAP) for metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC)

Alliance A031201 - A phase III trial of enzalutamide (ENZ) versus enzalutamide, abiraterone, and prednisone (ENZ/AAP) for metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC)

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Dr. Celestia Higano, MD of the University of Washington discusses the Alliance A031201 a phase III trial of enzalutamide (ENZ) versus enzalutamide, abiraterone, and prednisone (ENZ/AAP) for metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) Background: Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is an important growth mechanism in mCRPC, providing the rationale for treatment with AR axis inhibitors such as ENZ and AAP. Targeting AR with anti-androgens such as ENZ can result in compensatory autocrine and paracrine androgenic stimulation. Therefore, using ENZ with the androgen biosynthesis inhibitor AAP to dampen these resistance mechanisms could improve clinical outcomes relative to ENZ alone. Methods: Men with progressive mCRPC by Prostate Cancer Working Group 2 criteria were eligible. Prior treatment with taxanes for mCRPC and any prior treatment with ENZ or AAP was exclusionary. Patients (pts) were randomized 1:1 to ENZ or ENZ/AAP at standard FDA-approved doses. Randomization was stratified by prior chemotherapy and Halabi prognostic three risk groups. Castrating therapy was maintained. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) defined as the date of randomization from date of death or last follow-up. The log-rank test had 90% power to detect a hazard ratio for OS of 0.77 with a one-sided type I error rate of 0.025. Secondary endpoints included radiographic progression free survival (rPFS) and on-treatment PSA declines. Exploratory endpoints included imaging changes, and changes in serum biomarkers such as androgens, angiokines, and circulating microRNA and RNA. The primary analysis was based on the stratified log-rank test adjusting on the stratification factors. Results: Between January 2014 and August 2016, 1311 men were randomized: 657 to ENZ and 654 to ENZ/AAP. Groups were well balanced between arms, including stratification variables. 15.6% of pts were high risk, 35.3% intermediate, and 48.1% low. Median OS was 33.6 mo (95% CI 30.5-36.4) and 32.7 mo (29.9-35.4) respectively, two-sided p = 0.53. Fifty percent PSA decline rate was 80% vs. 76.5%. Grade 3-5 adverse events (AE) (all attributions) were 55.6% and 68.8% respectively. Treatment discontinuation due to AEs occurred in 5% and 12%, pt withdrawal in 5% and 13%, and progression or death in 57% and 48% of pts respectively. Conclusions: Addition of abiraterone acetate to enzalutamide did not prolong survival in men with mCRPC. The combination resulted in more AEs than enzalutamide alone. Support: U10CA180821, U10CA180882, U24CA196171; https://acknowledgments.alliancefound.org. Clinical trial information: NCT01949337
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