Haematopoietic stem cells give rise to the multitude of blood cells in our circulatory system. In this video, Dominique Bonnet, PhD, of the Francis Crick Institute, London, UK, speaks to us about the need to understand how mesenchymal stem cells become cancerous. Dr Bonnet outlines some of the preliminary research taking place in mouse models and explains how, although these models allow us to study the disease progression, there are limitations as the biology of humans and mice is quite different. Dr Bonnet then concludes her interview by mentioning some of the new therapies and drugs that are currently under investigation, such as NOS inhibitors, and their mechanism of function. This interview took place at the 2018 European School of Hematology (ESH) Clinical Updates on Acute Leukemias, held in Budapest, Hungary.